How can we know, if
at all, when we have
discovered or created truth?
Charlie Ma
There are two requirements for something to be the
truth. The truth is always shaped in the form of a
statement. Neither "Blue" nor "What is the
color of Bob's shirt?" can be the truth since
neither are a statement. "The color of Bob's shirt
is blue" can be the truth since it exists in the
form of a statement. A fact is a truthful statment. The
second qualification is that the truth must be supported
with relevent information. Fictional events, such as
fairytales or dreams are not nessesarily relevent to
events in reality, for example. If someone existed in a
simulated world, then reality to them would be the
simulation. He can only derive truth for the simulated
world, and not other worlds which he does not knowledge
of. What may be true under one condition may be false
under another. Conclusions not derived from reality are
not the truth in reality. Some truths are exclusive. If
Bob is five years old, he cannot also be ten years old.
Some truths are not exclusive to only one truth. Bob can
both "enjoy eating ice cream", and "enjoy
swimming." One truthful statement does not eliminate
the possibility of other truths. The question "what
does Bob enjoy" can have multiple answers which are
all truthful.
Absolute truth does not exist. The foundation of truth
are other truths. For example "this glass contains
cola" is a truth derived from three other truths:
"cola beverage containers originally contain
cola", "the contents of the beverage container
has not been altered", and that "the glass
contains the contents of the beverage container."
Each of the three statements (deemed as truths)
themselves are derived from other statements (also deemed
as truths). Each of the truths are supported by the other
three truths. Truth does not begin, branch off and end
like a tree. There is no fundamental truth from which all
other truths are derived from. Unlike Euclidean geometry
where everything comes from combinations of the five
initial premises, truth is the functions of other truths.
There are loops of truth which are connect to each other
in a series with no start or end. For example:
If: 
Then: 
Then: 
Then: 
A) 1 + 1 =
2
B) 2 + 2 = 4
C) 4  1 = 3 
D) 1+1+1+1
= 4 (A&B)
E) 2+21 = 3 (B&C)
F) 42 = 31 (A&C) 
G) 1+1+1 =
3 (A&E)
H) 31 = 2 (B&F)
I) 42 = 1+1+11 (D&F) 
1 + 1 = 2
(G&H)
2 + 2 = 4 (G&I)
4  1 = 3 (H&I) 
The mathematical equation is supported
by previous equations (noted in the brackets). Equation E
is supported by equations B and C, for example. The data
in the first colum matches the data in the last colum,
indicating that the equations prove themselves. The
truthfulness of each equation is dependent upon the other
equations. Assuming the equations were all validly
proven, then if any equation are proved to be false, then
the web would be broken and all the equations would
thefore be false. Truth is composed of limitless
relations of other truths, each one of which is also
composed of limited relations of other truths.
All statements are related, some more directly than
others. The basic premises of math such as addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division are clearly
connected to all quantatative sciences such as physics.
It is less directly connected to anthropology which
contains a large portion of psychology, which contains a
large portion of biology, which contains a large portion
of chemistry, which contains a large portion of physics,
which contains a large portion of math. This connection
is just one example of an indrect relationship. A
disproved theory in math could mean changes in other
fields, including a new way of comparing cultures.
To examin the absolute truthfulness of any one
statment requires examining the truthfulness of all other
statments (from the past, present and future). Since it
is impossible to know everything at any instant, it is
impossible to know if statements are absolutely truthful.
Statements can only be deemed truthful based on the
probability that it is actually truthful based on the
information available. Labeling a staement as truthful is
the same as labeling a statement as probabily truthful.
The differences between truths are the degree of
certainty, or the probability of the the statement being
true. This is analogus to the social anthropologist who
study culture. In athropology, statements are comparative
instead of absolute. Malinowski's ethnography on the
Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea stated that females were
subordinate to the males. Weiner's ethnography on the
Trobrianders stated that females dominate over males.
Neither ethnographers were lying since both their
conclusions were derived from information they were
conscious aware of. They both had different versions of
the truth, which are both valid. The statement
"females dominate over males in Trobriander
society" cannot be true or false alone since
absolute truth does not exist. While studying the
Trobrianders, they each discovered a different truth
since they both have different opinions.
Though it may appear that true has multiple
possibilities even for exclusive truth, that is not the
case. Probability plays an important role. Suppose a
salesman told Bob that a speaker can produce noise at
20hz, and Bob tells Cathy the same statement. If Bob
believed the statment is most likely to be true when he
told Cathy, then he said the truth to her. If Bob
believed the statment was probably false, then he did not
told her the truth. The statement: "Bob's computer
is powered by eletricity" is true because it is the
most probable answer. It could really be powered by
microwave signals from an alien spaceship orbiting the
planet. To the occupants in the spaceship, the statement
is false since they have more information. To Bob, the
statement is the truth since he is unaware of any
spaceships orbiting the planet. The truths are more
clearly stated as "To Bob on that day, his computer
is powered by eletricity" and "To the aliens on
that day, Bob's computer is powered by a microwave
feed." It is important to include "to him, at
that time" within the statement since the absolute
truth of what powers his computer can never be
discovered. It is possible that the aliens fooling Bob
may themselves be fooled by a third party. To each party
involved, the truth is different.
Only the probable truth for any one person at any
instant exists. Since new probable truths are continually
discovered, the probability of any general statement
being true will continually change. Probable truth has
three components: The person who evaluates the
truthfulness, the time of the evaluation, and the
statement he evaulates. "To Bob at 15:30 on Friday
the seventh, 1999, electrons were negative subatomic
particles" is one example. Truth is a constant
specific to each person, at each instant. When all three
variables are implemented, the truthfulness remain the
same. The trufullness of the statement "to Bob at
15:30 on Friday the seventh, 1999, electrons were
negative subatomic particles" remains constant
regarless of all other factors. The truthfulness only
changes when any of the three variables are changed.
Since absolute truth does not exist, it is not
possible to discover or create it. No one can know if
they discovered or created absolute truth because it
would never happen. Probable truth however, can be
created or discovered. It is also possible to know if
probable truth is discovered. When a statement is
generated, it is possible to know if it is probably true
or false. After analyzing relevant information, the
probability can be determined. The process of analyzing
will largely involve studying how the probable truth was
derived, and the reliability of both the supporting
statements which led to the discovery as well as
statements which contradict the statement. If the
statement is probably true, then truth was created. For
example, Napoleon Chagnon discovered that Yanomanö
prefers to solve problems through war instead of peaceful
diplomacy. This is supported by several points.
Supporting statements 
Reliability 
Support 
Chagnon witnessed several wars, as
well as heard of many other wars. 
Reliable since Chagnon is a
competent researcher who is not known to
intentionally lie. 
Makes the statment more probable to
be true by adding support 
Chagnon rarely witnessed or heard of
peaceful diplomatic ways to end conflicts. 
Reliable since Chagnon is a
competent researcher who is not known to
intentionally lie. 
Makes the statment more probable to
be true by adding support 
When relevent information have been adequatly
analyzed, a conclusion can be drawn regarding whether or
not the statement is probably true. In the example,
Chagnon's statement is probably truth, and thus he
created probable truth.
Although absolute truth can never be found, the
probable truth can. Using the process of analyzing
evidence supporting and contradicting the statement, we
can determine if any statement is probably true, as well
as the degree of probability. With this information,
whether or not truth was created or discovered can be
found.
